艺术学人

咖啡,对于众多上班族来说都是提神醒脑的必备品,可是对于咖啡生产商雀巢公司,日子却并不如咖啡一般香醇美好……

A Life less sweet

如蜜生活甜意减

【1】Large food companies have long been among the world’s
mostsolid, withreassuringlyconsistentreturns even in hard times.
None would seem steadier than Nestlé, based in the Swiss town of Vevey,
on a lake near snowy peaks. For its 150thanniversaryin 2016 it
opened a new museum filled with corporateheirlooms: the first
written notes about a new product called milk chocolate,laid outin
blackcursive; an old tin of Nescafé, used by soldiers as
astimulantin the second world war; and an early can of Henri
Nestlé’sinfantformula, which in 1867 saved the life of
aprematurebaby.

solid:固体的;坚固的;坚硬的

reassuringly:(语言或动作)令人放心的,令人欣慰的

consistent:(行为、态度等)一向的,一致的,始终如一的

anniversary:周年节日

heirlooms:传家宝,祖传遗物

lay out:(整齐地)铺开,展开

cursive:草书,手写体

stimulant:刺激的,激励的;使人兴奋的

infant:婴儿,幼儿

premature:过早的;太早的;提前的

巨型食品商家短时间以来都属于世界上最深厚的店家之列,尽管在费劲时期也有令人安心的风平浪静回报。似乎从未哪家集团比总部放在瑞士联邦雪山湖畔韦威镇(Vevey)的雀巢公司更巩固了。2016年雀巢成立150周年之际,其新揭幕的博物馆体现了成千上万“传家宝”:有关新产品“牛奶巧克力”的首份书面记录,用褐色草体书写;一罐过去的雀巢咖啡,在二战时士兵们曾用它来提神;还有一罐初期的Henley雀巢婴儿配方奶粉一一它在1867年挽救了一名婴孩的性命。

【2】It has come a long way since then. It sold goods worth nearly $90bn
in 189 countries in 2015. Of the 30,000 cups of coffeesippedaround
the world each second, Nestlé estimates, one-fifth are cups of Nescafé.
But the industry itpresidesover is inupheaval. On January1st a
newchief executive, Ulf Mark Schneider (pictured), took over. He is
the firstoutsiderto get the top job since 1922, and his
background—running a health-care firm, not selling chocolate bars or
frozen pizza—suggests the main source of worry for the business.

sip:小口地喝,抿

preside:主持,主管

upheaval:突变,剧变

chief executive:首席营业官

outsider:(某个协会或团队)外部的人

自这之后,雀巢已有长足发展。2015年,该商家在189个国家的销售额近900亿新币。雀巢预计,全球每秒有三万杯咖啡被众人捧到嘴边,其中五分之一是雀巢咖啡。但是,其基本的本行正经历巨变。六月1日,雀巢新首席执行官乌尔夫·马克·施奈德(Ulf
MarkSchneider,见图)上任。他是自1922年以来第一位担任这一参天职位的表面人员,而他前头管理医疗保健集团(而不是卖巧克力棒或结冰披萨)的办事背景是引致人们忧虑雀巢前景的基本点原因。

[3]More and more consumers aresnubbingpackaged food’s sugar, salt
andunpronounceablepreservatives. Meanwhile,swarmsof smaller
firms,emboldenedby the ease ofpeddlinggoods online,
aretoutingsupposedly healthier options.

snub:冷落,怠慢

unpronounceable:无法发声的,不易正确发音的

preservative:防腐剂,保护剂

swarm:一大群,成群

embolden:鼓励,使有胆量

peddling:沿街叫卖,兜售

tout:招揽,

包裹食品中的糖、盐以及各样名目拗口的防腐剂正饱受更加多顾客的萧条。同时,大批小公司依仗网络销售之便,推广据称更为健康的食物。

[4]As super-sized companiesswatat such tiny attackers, another foe
is gaining ground. 3G, a Brazilian private-equity firm, likes to buy
big, slow-growing food and drinks companies andslashtheir costs.
Targets have included Kraft and Heinz, twogiantswhich 3G helped
merge into one group in 2015, as well as several of the world’s
biggestbrewers.

swat:拍,击,打(昆虫等)

slash:大幅减小

giants:大公司;大企业

brewers:洋酒创建者

巨头集团在用力反扑那些微型袭击者之时,另一个仇人也起首抢占地盘。巴西私募股权集团3G喜欢购买增长放缓的特大型食品及饮品集团,并压缩它们的老董资产。其目标包括卡夫及亨氏两大巨头(2015年,3G导致这两家合作社集合为一个公司),还有几家中外最大的葡萄酒集团。

[5]Nestlé is notimmuneto such pressures. In recent years it has
often missed its goal of 5-6% sales growth. Excludingacquisitions,
its numbers have not met investors’expectationsin 11 of the past 17
quarters. In the most recent quarter, the firmregisteredorganicsales
growth of 3.2%.

immune:不受影响的免疫的

acquisitions:获得,合并,收购

expectation:预料

register:注册,登记

organic:有机的,统一的

直面那么些压力,雀巢也未能防止。近日,该集团平常达不到销售增长5%至6%的靶子。不包括收购,在过去17个季度中,该铺面有11个季度的加速并未达资者预期。如今一个季度,雀巢的有机销售增长率为3.2%。

[6]Changing consumer tastes explain some of theseshortfalls. So
does a shiftingretaillandscape. Managing a giantportfolioof
brands, from KitKat and Nespresso to DiGiorno pizza and Purina dog food,
has become harder. Mr Schneider will have to master online ways to
market and deliver its well-known brands. The firm needs
tocoaxcustomers to pay more forpremiumproducts as ordinary ones
getcommoditised, and discounted by firms such as Germany’s Lidl and
Aldi.

shortfalls:不足,亏空,差额

retail:零售,零卖

portfolio:证券投资组合

coax:哄骗,劝诱

premium:优质的,高端的

commoditised:商品化

于是增长疲软,消费者口味改变是有些要素,零售业大环境的变通也是原因之一。要管住包含基特Kat巧克力、Nespresso咖啡、DiGiorno比萨、普瑞纳狗粮在内的巨大品牌组合已变得尤其困难。施奈德必须精晓线上一手来营销和传言集团的出名品牌。在普通产品被德意志息息相关超市Lidl及Aldi等商家成为平常商品又折价销售的动静下,雀巢公司需要劝诱客户为高端产品开发更高的价格。

[7]The firm can stillboastimpressive staying power—its global
market share across its entire range of products has remained near 20%
for the pastdecade. François-Xavier Roger, Nestlé’s chief financial
officer, points out that the group’s sales growth in the first nine
months of 2016 was among the fastest of the top ten biggest food and
drink companies. Yet a detailed examination of its position by Sanford
C. Bernstein, a research firm, shows that when growth from acquisitions
isexcluded, it lost share in all but three of its top 20
productcategoriesbetween 2007 and 2015.

boast:吹嘘,夸耀

decade:十年,十年间

exclude:排除,不包括

category:种类,类别

雀巢仍可以以其持久的实力为傲一一病逝十年间,其全线产品的环球市场份额一贯保持在看似20%。首席财务官弗朗索瓦-泽维尔·罗吉尔(Roger)(Francois-Xavier
罗Gill(Roger))提议,雀巢公司在2016年前九个月的行销增长是全球十大食品饮料公司中最快的。但市场探讨公司盛博(Sanford
C.Bernstein)对该铺面的详细研究注明,除去收购带来的增进,二零零七年至2015年间,公司最大的20个产品品种中仅有3类的市场份额未减退。

[8]Such results are likely to attract particularcensurefrom
investors because of Nestlé’s past heavyemphasison growth and market
share, which sometimes came at the expense of the firm’s profits.
Shareholders in the firm are waiting to see whether Mr Schneider
willshake things up. Some want him to sell off businesses that seem
most at risk of long-term decline, such as frozen food, as shoppers look
for fresherfare伟德国际1946手机版下载,.

censure:责备,指责,谴责

【例句】The ethics committee may take a decision to admonish him or to
censure him.

道德委员会或者会控制对他展开训诫或者严酷批评。

emphasis:强调,着重

shake up:彻底调整,重组,改进(协会、机构、行业等

fare:费用,票价

这种业绩很可能会惹来投资者的责难,毕竟雀巢过去强调加强和市场占有率,有时还不惜为此牺牲利润。2015年,它的营业利润率为15%,优于其法兰西挑衅者达能集团的13%,但远低于卡夫亨氏的21%。雀巢的股东们正在观看施奈德能否改变现状。有人期待他卖掉业绩最有可能一劳永逸下降的事情,例如冷冻食品,因为消费者近日偏好更新鲜的食物。

Food for life?

生命之食

[9]For now, Nestlé isdefiant. “We started 150 years ago having a
product that actually— there’ssymbolismthere—saved the life of a
child,” says Paul Bulcke, theoutgoingchiefexecutive. He and his
colleagues say that investment in health and relatedinnovationwill
produce strong growth at the company for years to come. Still, few
observers would call Nestlé a health company. Many of its products are
perfectly healthy, including bottled water and coffee. Many are not—milk
chocolate and ice cream,to name but two.

defiant:不服的;挑衅的

symbolism:象征主义

outgoing:即将离任的;快要卸任的

executive:总经理,主管

innovation:改革,创新

to name but two:仅列举其二

当下来看,雀巢并不服气。“我们始创于150年前,当时的一款产品实际上救了一个儿女的命,这是有象征意义的。”即将离任的上位执行官保罗·薄凯(保罗(Paul)Bulcke)说道。他和同事们代表,投资于正常及有关改进会为公司将来带来强劲增长。然则,少有观望者会觉得雀巢是一家养生企业。它有众多不行健康的出品,包括瓶装水和咖啡。但也有很多产品并不正常,在此只举两例:比如牛奶巧克力和冰激淋。

[10]The firm has a researchinstitutedevoted to studying food’s
role in the management andpreventionof disease—for example, better
understandingnutrition’sability to promote brain health. It may
bring growth but probably only in the long term. Nestlé has also
partnered with young drugs firms, including one that is testing a
treatment forulcerativecolitis.

institute:机构,学院,研究院

prevention:预防

nutrition:营养学,营养品

ulcerative:各溃疡(性)的

colitis:结肠炎

雀巢设有一家研讨所.专门探究食物在管制和防护疾病中的效能,例如要更好地问询营养物质如何可以推动大脑的正常。这或许会带来增长,但或许要深切才能立竿见影。雀巢也与一些新生制药公司合作,包括一家正在测试某种溃疡性结肠炎疗法的信用社。

[11]More immediatelyrewardingmay be its efforts to make
best-selling but unhealthy foods a bit morewholesome. In November
the company said it had createdhollowsugarcrystalsthat taste
sweet but contain fewercaloriesthan the usual stuff. It will begin
to put the new ingredient in its chocolate in 2018.

rewarding:值得的,有报酬的

wholesome:健康的,有益身心的

hollow:空心的,空的

crystal:水晶,结晶,晶体

calories:卡路里

雀巢还极力将旗下畅销但不健康的食品改善得相对健康一些,这或者更有可能带来立竿见影的报恩。二〇一八年二月,该商家表示已成立出一种空心的糖晶体,味道甜但含卡路里较正常糖晶体低。企业将在2018年利用这一新原料制作巧克力。

[12]It is also proud of changes to the millions of frozen dinners it
sells every week in America. Shoppers had been avoiding the frozen-food
aisle. Nestlé first tried discounts, and then in 2015 introduced
newversionsof itsLeanCuisine products, stripping
outunpalatableingredients and replacing them with organic ones. At
Stouffer’s, another frozen brand, Nestlé decided to target men with
easy,proteinpacked meals that are more nutritionally valuable. It
worked—its frozen-food sales in America grew faster. In November 2015
they were 6% above what they had been a year earlier. But Bernstein’s
Andrew Wood points out that therevivalof frozen food now
lookswobblyagain.

version:版本

lean:清瘦的

unpalatable:难吃的,不可口的

protein:蛋白质

revival:复兴,复活,再生

wobbly:摇摆的,不平稳的

雀巢另一项引以为豪的更动是冷冻快餐(在美利哥每一周卖出数百万份)。在此以前,冷冻食品受到顾客冷落。雀巢先是尝试折价促销,然后又在2015年出产新版的“瘦身特餐”(Lean
Cuisine)体系,以有机食材替换掉往日难吃的成份。对于旗下另一个冷冻食品品牌Stouffer,雀巢决定针对男性顾客推出富含木质素、更具营养价值的速食简餐。这个极力得到了职能一一其冷冻食品的行销在美利坚合众国增长加快。2015年五月的销售额同比提升6%。但盛博的安德鲁(Andrew)·Wood(安德鲁Wood)提出,冷冻食品的复兴近日犹如又变得摇摆不定。

[13]Nor is Nestlé ignoring 3G’s strategy entirely: it is trying
totrimexpenses. “We are very much in an investment position, not in
a cost-cutting exercise,” says Mr Roger, “but that doesn’t mean that we
don’t want to be cost-efficient in what we do.” Whatever else Mr
Schneider has on the menu for Nestlé,radicalchanges may be somewhat
limited by the fact that so many of those who built the company into
what it is now arestickingaround.

trim:削减

radical:激进的,彻底的,根本的

sticking around:逗留,待在原处

雀巢也没有完全忽略3G的战略性:公司正极力削减开支。“我们的韬略是斥资,而非削减资产。”罗杰(Roger)说,“但那不意味我们不想在经营中落实资金效益。”无论施耐德还将为雀巢准备哪些的菜系,彻底变革也许有些都会遭受限制,因为令雀巢发展到现在这样子的人大半还留在公司内。

雀巢作为一个实力丰饶的大商厦,自然不会随随便便倒下,但亦无法避免受到市场转移的碰撞。市场上符合消费者需要的成品才能巩固,各行各业都是这般。集团要保障生机,需要不停改变提升自己,个人也是这样,生活中总是竞争,逆水行舟不进则退,不过这种挑衅不也是人生的意思所在吗?

英文原稿:

http://www.economist.com

讲解:霞姐 / Tiassa / Angel

编排 / 校对:Angel

本次小说翻译来源于经济学人商论,封面图片源于素材公社

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